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R DISPLAY CASE

Lachine: Gateway and Trading Hub

Hugh Heney bought the Maison in 1765. Nearby he built an inn, which he operated along with a general store. As the fur trade picked up again, business was brisk; Heney stocked supplies and stored pelts for the travelling traders. He undertook major renovations to the house, done in 1768 by one Jean-Baptiste Crête. These included repairs and changes to the existing fireplaces and the addition of a new one. The house was probably occupied by tenant farmers.


Hugh Heney, of Irish Protestant origin, married Marie-Madeleine Lepailleur, niece of Claude Nicolas Guillaume de Lorimier. In 1769, the captain of the Lachine militia acknowledged the importance of Heney’s establishment, affirming that he alone had the capacity to host the Upper Country voyageurs and trader-outfitters. The inn was situated near the only ferry crossing that linked Lachine to Sault-Saint-Louis (now Kahnawake). Hugh Heney died in 1779 and his wife, two years later; they left behind three underage children.


Title to the property was clouded for some twenty years by a dispute involving the heirs and the tenants. During this time, Thomas Finchley, a merchant, rented the house, the farm and the orchard, as well as the inn, first in 1786, then from 1793 to 1804.


1. Plate

Pearlware. Shell-edge decoration.

Title to the property was clouded for some twenty years by a dispute involving the heirs and the tenants. During this time, Thomas Finchley, a merchant, rented the house, the farm and the orchard, as well as the inn, first in 1786, then from 1793 to 1804.


Archaeological collection, Ministère de la Culture et des Communications du Québec IQU2143-38


2. Plate

Royal creamware.

Archaeological collection, Ministère de la Culture et des Communications du Québec IQU-2145(b) 314


3. Plate fragments (2)

Pearlware, 18th century. These fragments may be from a pearlware plate like No. 1.

Pearlware, a refined English earthenware with a bluish tint, was the precursor of the fine ceramics found in homes today. AR-1998-401


4. Saucer fragment

Pearlware, 18th century. Hand-drawn bands and ripple decoration. The yellow accent band associ- ates the piece with English yellowware. AR-1998-187

5. English teapot fragments (2)

Jackfield ware, 18th century. Rounded body and lid. Notable for its deep black lustrous glaze, this handsome earthenware was developed around 1750 at the Jackfield Pottery in England. AR-1998-423, AR-1998-188


6. Fragment

White faience, 18th century. Painted decoration of Oriental inspiration on the inside, stripes on the outside. Probably made in England. AR-2000-258


7. Pottery fragment

Coarse earthenware, 19th century. Made in England or North America.

AR-1998-194


8. Bowl

Coarse earthenware. Rippled decoration. Probably made in Québec’s Richelieu Valley. Similar in design to fragment No. 7. Archaeological collection, Ministère de la Culture et des Communications du Québec IQU2295-33 IVI-517


9 & 10. Bowl fragments (2)

Coarse earthenware, 19th century.

9 AR-1999-403

10 AR-1999-402


11. Button

Copper alloy, 18th century. Decorated with two courting birds. Stamped on the back: “TREBLE STAND E...TRA RICH.” AR-2000-105


12. Buttons (4)

Copper alloy, 18th century.

AR-1998-189

Bone, four holes, 19th century.

AR-1998-191

Metal, four holes, 19th century.

AR-1998-192

White opaque glass, four holes, 19th century. AR-1998-193


13. Button core

Bone, 19th century. AR-1998-190


14. Buttons (3)

Paste glass, 18th century.

AR-2000-305, AR-2000-306, AR-2000-307


15. Aiguillette end

Copper alloy and silk, 19th century. Aiguillettes were made of silk cord tipped at either end with an aglet. In the 17th century, they ornamented the shoulders of military uniforms and served as decorative laces for whalebone corsets. AR-1999-197


16. Small thimble

Copper alloy, 18th century.

AR-2000-114


17. Scissor handles (2)

Metal, 18th century.


Restored by the Centre de conservation du Québec AR-2000-195, AR-2000-196


18. Coin

Copper alloy, 1772-1775. Georges III on the obverse and Britannia on the reverse. AR-2000-112


19. Pipe bowls (3)

Fine baked clay, 19th century. Pipes made in the 1800s were more ornate than those of the 1700s. Masonic decorations like those on these three pipes were common. Freemasonry* was quite popular in the 19th century, particularly among military men and merchants of British origin. It is believed that an inhabitant of the Maison, perhaps Thomas Finchley, was a Freemason. AR-1999-404, AR-2000-405, AR-2000-406

* Freemasonry: a widespread esoteric and ritualistic fraternal society devoted to promoting a moral philosophy and pursuing the ideals of truth and human and social betterment.


20. Musket ball

Lead, 18th century. AR-1998-198


21. Reproduction of a bartering brooch

Metal. Double heart-shaped brooch topped by a crown. This model was called Luckenbooth in Scotland, where it was given as a token of betrothal. British silversmiths may have introduced it in North America, or perhaps First Nations requested it after admiring those worn by Scottish merchants and colonists. Silver jewellery was very popular with First Nations in the 18th and 19th centuries. Executed by Michel Burns as part of educational activities held at the Musée in 1997.


Gift of Michel Burns RG-1998-005


22. Bartering pendant

Copper alloy, after 1832. Lying beaver with a hanging ring. Fur trading companies used pendants and similar items in bartering with the First Nations. Objects of this sort were originally cast in silver, produced by local silversmiths or imported from England. Copies made of various alloys were also in circulation.


The pendant is stamped with the “XY” mark used by the New North West Company to identify its bales of merchandise. This firm operated from 1798 to 1804 in fierce competition with the North West Company and the Hudson’s Bay Company.

Gift of Yves Saint-Germain RA-1983-L14B-61


23. Bowl

Wood, 19th century. Folk art. The ear of the bowl is engraved with the initials “A C” and a cross, and a sculpted beaver appears on the underside. The outside of the bowl features decorative sculpting and carving: a fish, a canoe, a barrel and a bleeding heart in the centre. These symbols are associated with life in the forest and fur trading with the First Nations.


Gift of Yves St-Germain RB-1980-L1-61


24. Nails (6)

Wrought iron, 19th century. AR-1998-199-1.6


25. Fragments of window glass

Glass, 18th century. AR-1998-407

25. Fragments de vitre pour les carreaux

Verre, XVIIIe siècle. AR-1998-407